The practice of preserving food can be traced to prehistory, when fruits and vegetables were dried, cereal grains were parched, and fish and game were salted and dried.

These age-old methods developed slowly and were purely empirical. -- Fermentation, drying, smoking, and finally curing with salt was  the principal of these techniques.  They were the only means until modern refrigeration replaced them.

The  "Kosher" guiding law  developed by most to ensure the hygienic distribution and consumption of the meat, was also accompanied by a  Vedic  type of ritual,  mirrored in many other religions. The ritual of sacrifice and then salting which was the basis for a healthy life sustaining meat and protein diet, at the same time fulfilled critical physiological needs.   It became part of a "covenant", particularly for the Jewish religion, and around which most other religions, and many religious traditions developed  :

- -  and their "abattoir", became their temple.. 

TEMPLE services to the public

Herod's monopoly of the salt supply from the Dead Sea salt mountain, carefully guarded and protected en route to Jerusalem by fortifications such as Masada,  finally provided the Temple in Jerusalem with a highly profitable and exclusive source of income.

Salting  meat from a domesticated animal was only possible in the temple and any family owning an animal, and  wishing to preserve the meat for the coming months was obliged to take the animal to the temple.
The Temple for all intents and purposes, was a sophisticated 'abattoir' providing an hygienic and very well organised service to the community  for the purpose of  producing 'kosher' meat.  The leather, hides, and allied bye-products were direct unlaundered income and were almost certainly the reason for the "overturning of the money changers tables" . 

Domesticated animals taken to the temple were handled with the utmost care and respect by the priests on behalf of  their owners and with the ritual and piety that vindicated any possible misunderstanding  as to the purpose of the 'sacrifice'

It is clear that the ceremony and ritual accompanying this community service, was the result , and not the cause of it, and when examining other temples so central to other civilisations, it becomes clear that this was the case with almost all other cults and religions.

Whilst this highly commendable service was so necessary to any civilised and developing population, the key element of exclusive salt supplies also established it as a very effective  monopoly with considerable governing power particularly at the local community level. 

The salt monopolies were to be the instrument of power  until the Industrial Revolution when the invention of modern burning fuels allowed the efficient mass production of salt by vacuum evaporation and the elimination of religious and controlled coercion.   


The first salt monopoly may have been enforced by animals protecting a salt lick exclusively for its own species.

Human beings learned the locations of salt licks from the animals by following them and the first animal sacrifices, meat proteins began to be distributed without fear of bacteria spoiling the meat.    Monopolising and protecting this distribution to the growing domesticated civilisations gave undisputed power to certain groups

Today The political inferences are becoming clear.
A religious organization monopolizing such a service was to be treated as any other commercial enterprise, which provides a service, and which endeavors to control the market sector

As with any political or lobbying movement representing  an economic sector, its income, profits and its spending,  would be carefully supervised and be subject to the same laws as other political parties and organisations funded by business and private interests.

More importantly, anti-trust and monopoly laws must therefore also apply to all religions.    It is logical that religion must not be separated from  administrations or politics, but be considered as one of the most important economic and lobbying movements, and be an essential part of our civil rights organisation.  Religion and religious leaders may not be 'above' these every-day directives.

The Religious inferences are less clear.   Belief is a very personal freedom. Today  multimedia allows us to choose our own beliefs from a myriad of concepts either inherited or propagated by the remnants of latter-day religions still rich from the pickings of their historical salt monopolies.    It is not difficult to understand that  the authoritarian regimes   controlling such monopolies left little room for freedom of choice, and that today we are only at the advent of a new era free of coercion.

"Big Brother" will certainly  be watching over us,  but will he have  a power tool like a salt monopoly to direct or change our beliefs?. 

Book of Leviticus

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The Book of Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικός, Levitikos, meaning "relating to the Levites"; Hebrew: ������, Wayiqra, "And He called") is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah (or Pentateuch).

The English name is from the Latin Leviticus, taken in turn from Greek and a reference to the Levites, the tribe from whom the priests were drawn; Leviticus is not, however, a manual for priests, as it concerns itself at least equally with the role and duties of the laity.[1]

Leviticus rests on two crucial beliefs: the first, that the world was created "very good" and retains the capacity to achieve that state although it is vulnerable to sin and defilement; the second, that the faithful enactment of ritual makes God's presence available, while ignoring or breaching it compromises the harmony between God and the world.[2]

The traditional view is that Leviticus was compiled by Moses, or, in less extreme form, that the material in it goes back to his time.[3] However, the tradition is comparatively late (it dates from Josephus, a 1st century CE historian),[4] and scholars are practically unanimous that the book had a long period of growth, that it includes some material of considerable antiquity, and that it reached its present form in the Persian


DEHYDRATION Sacrifice - Embalming - Rites & Rituals - Kosher - Slaughter - Tophet

Sodium salt solution has a desiccating effect of attracting water from the animal tissues since the salt solution water pressure is considerably lower than the tissue liquids. In effect osmosis. The result was to dehydrate the meat to a point where no bacteria could grow and cause decomposition of the meat. The required salt solution for cheese and butter, is 2%, 6% for meat, and 20% for fish. For this additional use of salt, for the preservation of meat, the daily individual consumption of salt could be as high as 100 g per day. Jewish "KASHRUT" [health] laws, involve the dehydration of meat for its preservation, or the draining of all liquids including blood from the carcass. The requirement in ancient times, and to this day, was to prevent the meat from deteriorating, so that it could be kept long enough, to allow its gradual consumption over a period of time after the slaughter of the animal.


An old Persian word for the shekel was  a [pathuka]--a 'ram'" (Dandamaev and Lukonin) It also meant five fingers [or worth a handful of salt?] possibly the handful of salt was the  amount required to de-hydrate by osmosis the meat of one ram and render it "kosher"



D.N. Jha, professor of history at Delhi University, all copies of whose recent book, The Holy Cow,  is accused of offending one of the most cherished sentiments of India's Hindu majority.

The book, banned by India's courts, says beef-eating and ritual cow slaughter were widespread among upper-caste Hindus during and after India's Vedic "golden age" (named after the Vedas, Hinduism's oldest texts) between 1500BC and 600BC.

"The Hindu fundamentalists say that all impure practices, including beef-eating, were introduced to India by the Muslims after the 12th century (AD), or by the British after the 18th century," said Jha. "But there is overwhelming textual evidence to show that beef-eating was common a long time before then. What my book says has hit them squarely in the face."




The Temple "Abattoir" production line:

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11 - Lishkas ha'Nezirim - The room where the offerings of Nezirim were cooked and their newly shorn hair was burned. (Bamidbar 6:18) 
12 - Lishkas ha'Eitzim - The Wood Storage Room where wood for the Mizbe'ach and fireplace was kept. 
13 - Lishkas ha'Metzora'im - The room with a Mikvah for the final cleansing of the Metzorah. (Vayikra 14:11) 
14 - Lishkas ha'Shemanim - The Oil Room where oil for the Menorah and Menachos as well as wine for Nesachim were kept. 
15 - Lishkas Sanhedrei Ketanah (second) - The room of the second Sanhedrin of 23 judges to whom more difficult questions were referred. 
16 - Fifteen Steps - Fifteen steps on which the musicians of the Leviyim stood while playing for the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah. (The 15 Shir ha'Ma'alos in Tehilim were so called because they were sung on these steps.) 
17 - Two Leshachos Underneath Ezras Yisroel - Entrances to the two rooms under the Ezras Yisroel where musical instruments were kept and the musicians and choir practiced. 
18 - Sha'ar Mizrachi of the Azarah -The Eastern Gate, The Gate of Nikanor, was named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38) 
19 - Two Small Entrances - Two small doorways on either side of the Gate of Nikanor used by people who were exiting; these doorways were not oppposite the entrance of the Heichal so that the people exiting would not have their backs turned to the Sanctuary. 
20 - Lishkas Pinchas ha'Malbish - The Room of Pinchas the Dresser was named for the man who was originally in charge of distributing and collecting the Kohanim's clothes. It contained 96 closets where sets of clothes were kept for each of the 24 families of Kohanim. (The Kohanim were divided into 24 Mishmaros (watches), each serving one week. Each Kohen was required to wear four garments.) 
21 - Lishkas Osei Chavitin - The room where the 12 Chalos of the Kohen Gadol were baked every morning. (They were offered daily in two parts, half in the morning and half in the afternoon.) 
22 - Ezras Yisroel - The Court of the Israelites which was 11 Amos by 135 Amos, beyond which Israelites would not go unless necessary. (Kelim 1:8) 
23 - Roshei Pispesin - Posts set in the wall to separate Ezras Yisrael from Ezras Kohanim. (Alt., Pesifasin; a Mechitah of stones laid out in mosaic form) (Midos 2:6) 
24 - Ma'alah Achas - a step of one Amah. 
25 - Duchan - A stage with 3 steps on which the Leviyim stood facing the Sanctuary (their backs to the people) while singing. From the Duchan to the Mizbe'ach were 11 Amos which was Ezras Kohanim. 
26 - Shesh Leshachos - The following 6 rooms were on either side of the entrance:  27 - Lishkas ha'Gazis - The Room of the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges, the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought. (Devarim 17;8)




28 - Lishkas Parhedrin - The room used by the Kohen Gadol daily, and in which he lived during the 7 days before Yom Kippur. (Parhedrin were government assessors who were appointed for one year. This room was so named when Kohanim began to pay money for the office of Kohen Gadol and were changed from year to year.) 
29 - Lishkas ha'Golah - The room where fresh water was drawn from a well. The Lishkah was name after the people from the Golah (exile) who had dug the well (BARTENURA). According to Rabbeinu Yehonasan (at the end of Eruvin), the name of this Lishkah is Lishkas *ha'Gulah* because of the large bowl (Gulah) that was set near the well and which was filled every day with water. 30 - Lishkas ha'Melach - The room where salt was kept. 
31 - Lishkas Beis ha'Parvah - The room where hides of the offerings were preserved. On its roof was a Mikvah used by the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur. This room, with an ingenious system for bringing water to the roof, was designed by Parvah 
32 - Lishkas Ha'Medichin - The room where the Korbanos were rinsed. 
33 - Sha'ar ha'Mayim - The Water Gate, opposite the Mizbe'ach, was opened only on Sukkos to bring water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim. A stream passed through the Azarah and flowed through this gate. When necessary, its flow was blocked, causing it to overflow and cleanse the Azarah floor. 
34 - Lishkas Beis Avtinas - The room where the Ketores was compounded, named for the Avtinas family of Kohanim. (The Kohanim of the family of Avtinas were the only ones who could identify the Ma'aleh Ashan, an herb which caused the smoke of the Ketores to rise in a column.) Next to this room was a second Beis Tevilah for the use of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur. 
35 - Sha'ar ha'Bechoros - The Gate of the Firstborn through which were brought the offering of first born animals (Shmos 13). 
36 - Sha'ar ha'Delek - The Gate of Kindling through which wood was brought for the Mizbe'ach. 
37 - Sha'ar ha'Elyon - The Upper Gate, a smaller entrance for which no special use is mentioned. 
38 - Eleven Amos - Eleven Amos between the western well of the Ta'im and the western wall of the Azarah. 
39 - Two small Gates - Two small gates in the northwest and southwest part of the west wall for which no special use is mentioned. 
40 - (Sha'ar Yechanyah) Sha'ar ha'Nitzotz -The Gate of the Spark, a roofed entrance under which burning coals were kept for rekindllng purposes. It was formerly called the Gate of Yechanyah for it was through this gate that the king passed when he went into exile to Babylon. On its roof was a watchtower.
41 - Sha'ar ha'Korban - The Gate of the Offering through which Kodshei Kodshim offerings were brought. 
42 - Sha'ar ha'Nashim - The Women's Gate, an entrance for women bringing offerings. 


    OVERALL PLAN of the TEMPLE and the processing section [red]

    TEMPLE : [note the well designed layout 
    of the sequential processing line in particular:

    47 The altar [misbaach] 
    46 The lines of rings to 'hold the animals necks during 'slaughter' 
    45 The 'rinsing' tables 
    44 The 'skinning ' posts 
    30/32 The storage rooms including storage of SALT 

    43 - Beis ha'Moked - - The Fireplace Room - A large, domed room where Kohanim could warm themselves during the service. (They became chilled easily while working barefoot in the open, and on cold, marble floors.) There were 4 smaller rooms in the corners of this large room: SW - Lishkas Tela'ei Korban, where at least 6 blemish-free sheep were kept. SE - Lishkas Lechem ha'Panim, where the Lechem ha'Panim was baked. NE - Lishkah of the Avnei Mizbe'ach, where stones of the Mizbe'ach defiled by the Greeks were stored. It is also called Lishkas ha'Chosamos because tokens exchangeable for flour and wine were sold there. NW - Beis Ha'Moked ha'Katan, which had a fireplace and an entrance to a basement Mikvah and washrooms. 
    44 - Shemoneh Amudim Nanasin - Eight short posts with hooks used for skinning Korbanos. 
    45 - Shemoneh Shulchanos Shel Shayish - Eight marble tables on which Korbanos were rinsed. 
    46 - Twenty Four Rings - 24 rings, set into the floor for use during Shechitah. The animal's neck would be held firmly by the ring which opened and closed on a hinge. 
    47 - The Mizbe'ach - The Altar for burnt offerings measuring 32 Amos square at its base and 10 Amos high including the Keranos (horns). 
    48 - The Kevesh - The ramp to the Mizbe'ach on its south side which was 32 Amos in length and 16 Amos wide. (There were 2 smaller ramps on either side of the ramp leading to and from the Sovev.) 
    49 - Square Amah - Entrance to the Shis, an underground hollow where blood from the Yesod collected. A marble slab covering this opening in the floor was removed when it was necessary to clean the Shis. 
    50 - The Machtah - The shovel used daily for Terumas ha'Deshen was left on the floor at the bottom corner of the ramp. 
    51 - Two Tables - Two tables, one of marble for holding fats to be burned, and one of silver for holding the 93 Klei shares (vessels used by the Kohanim.) 
    52 - The Kiyor - The Basin for washing hands and feet (Shmos 30). It had 12 faucets and was attached to a pulley that lowered it into a well of water. 
    53 - Twelve Steps - Twelve steps leading to the Hall (Ulam) of the Sanctuary where the Kohanim stood for the daily Birkas Kohanim. 54 - The Wall of the Ulam - The wall of the Ulam was 100 Amos long, and 5 Amos thick, and as high as the Heichal. 
    55 - The Entrance To The Ulam - The entrance to the Hall was 20 Amos wide and 40 Amos high. An embroidered curtain hung there in place of doors. 
    56 - The Ulam - The inside measurements of the Ulam were seventy Amos by eleven Amos. 57, 
    58 - Two Tables - A table was on either side of the entrance. The right one was of marble for holding the Lechem Ha'Panim before it was brought into the Sanctuary. The left one was of gold for holding the Lechem Ha'Panim when it was being removed. 
    59 - Beis ha'Chalifos - At the far ends of the Ulam were two rooms, fifteen Amos by 11 Amos, where the Shechitah knives of each Mishmar (family of Kohanim) were kept. 
    60 - Two Pishpeshim - Two doors, 8 Amos high, in the corner of each of the Beis ha'Chalifos. (These doors were not used for entering or exiting, but to allow the Shechitah of Kodshim Kalim in any part of the Azarah by complying with the Pasuk requiring to slaughter the Korbanos at the entrance to the Sanctuary (Vayikra 3:2).) [It was through the northern Pishpesh that the Romans threw the torch which set the Mikdash ablaze, when it was destroyed - Josephus] 
    61 - The Entrance to the Heichal - The entrance to the Sanctuary was 10 Amos wide and 20 Amos high. Above it hung a golden vine to which new leaves and grapes of gold would be donated. (When necessary, grapes and leaves were removed and given to support the poor Kohanim.) High above the entrance, near the roof, was a golden menorah. (The reflection of the sun's rays from the Menorah each morning showed that it was time for Keri'as Shema.) It had 2 sets of doors, one at each end of the 6 Amos thickness of wall. 
    62 - Two Small Entrances - On either side of the Sanctuary entrance was a smaller entrance to the Ta'im. The left entrance was never opened because of the verse in Yechezkel 52:2. 
    63 - Thirty Eight Ta'im - Thirty eight compartments for storage; 15 on the north side (3 levels of 5), 15 on the south side (3 levels of 5) and 8 on the west side (2 levels of 3, and another one on top of 2). Each compartment had 3 entrances; two to the compartments on either side, and one in the ceiling to the compartment in the level above. 
    64 - Lul - An opening 8 Amos high in one of the western compartments to allow the Shechitah of Kodshim Kalim on the west, if necessary. (see #60) 65 - Mesibah - A ramp extended upwards from the floor at the northeast of the Sanctuary to the roof at the northwest, level across the roof to the southwest, and upwards on the south to the entrance of the Sanctuary attic. (The attic was rarely entered. Once in 7 years, when it was necessary to inspect or repair the walls of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, workmen would be lowered in boxes from openings in the attic floor. These boxes were open in front to allow the workmen (Kohanim, if possible) to make their repairs without viewing the rest of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. (King Yoash was hidden here as a child to prevent his murder by Queen Atalyah (Melachim II 11: ) 
    66 - Beis Horadas ha'Mayim - A corridor, 3 Amos wide, extended along the south wall to carry off rain water from the roof of the Sanctuary, which slanted in that direction. 
    67 - The Heichal - The Sanctuary was 40 Amos long, 20 Amos wide and 40 Amos high. On the outside it reached a height of 100 Amos. (King Herod raised its height to 120 Amos (Josephus 55). 
    68 - Tavlah Shel Shayish - A marble slab which was removed when it was necessary to take earth for the "bitter waters" of the Sotah. (Bamidbar 5:17)

An example of a MINOAN temple palace MALIA where clearly the drainage systems built into the alter had similar purpose

What is Koshering ?
Deuteronomy 15:3 Excluded are those species "that only chew the cud, or them that only have the hoof cloven: the camel and the hare...because they chew the cud, but part not the hoof...and the swine, because he parteth the hoof, but cheweth not the cud."
Deuteronomy 15:21 " Thou shalt nor seethe a kid in its mother's milk."
Deuteronomy 14:21 " Ye shall not eat of anything that dieth of itself.
Deuteronomy 15:23 "Thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it on the ground as water."


Draining the carcass, of the blood, was a relatively easy process, and most of the blood could be drawn off in two stages:

# Gravity drainage .

This is known as "hanafesh" in Jewish law However the remaining body liquids in the tissues could only be drawn off     by an:

# Osmotic effect, -

by increasing the liquid pressure, with salt, either with solid salt crystals, or by soaking in a concentrated brine, and attracting the remaining liquids [known as "hamatzitz" or liquid residues, ] with a pressure difference, very similar to the process our own bodies employ to retain the required ratio between salt and water.


There are a number of ways of achieving this preservation. The dehydration process includes soaking the carcass in a "natrum" brine [ salt solution] or washing the carcass with salt brine, or placing the carcass in a bed of salt crystals. Other methods involved, for example the 'anointing' of oils, and "broiling" with vinegar and water, to 'seal' the carcass, if complete drainage was not possible. The process of dehydration was well known to most ancient civilisations, and although the 'salt' process was not exclusive to all communities, it was recognised as the easiest and the most efficient, provided that salt was in good supply.

The preparation and the concentration of the salinity of the brines, was not so easy and it required a sophisticated water supply and a drainage system.
A typical example of such a system designed for this purpose was Hezekiah's centralising of an hygenic hydraulic system in the Temple in Jerusalem, from a fresh water source, the Gihon spring, amongst others, into a resevoir called the Pool of Siloam [Shiloach] The water was cleverly directed through the Temple by gravity, and exiting the Temple as waste at the southern side. 2000 ritual baths were reputed to have been available in the Temple, with a hydraulic circuit for feeding and draining the baths and reslurrying the salt.
. The ritual of sacrifice, and salting, which was the basis for a healthy, life sustaining meat and protein diet, at the same time fulfilled critical physiological needs.Itbecame part of a "covenant", particularly for the Jewish religion, and around which, many other religions, and many religious traditions developed:- and their "abattoir", became their temple.

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