PALAEOGEOGRAPHY

In 1962 the first deep ice cores were taken from the Antractic ice mass , The dust layers found in the cores may be correlated to the changes of the world's climates over the past few thousand years. If one accepts the premise that volcanic dust - in particular and other coloring matter, changed the Albedo of the ice caps and caused melting and or fusing, resulting in eustatic oscillations in ocean levels, then historians must reconsider relevant aspects of our history especially with regard to the coastal production of salt.

 

Ice cores - Melting and fusion - Flooding 
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Antarctic Ice cores   BYRD POLAR TEAM      WARM INTERGLACIAL PERIODS

Volcanic ash layers were found at 172.1 m, 219.4 m and 222.8 m in the "Little America", ice core by: Crary, Robinson, Bennett and Boyd [1962] indicating discoloring of the ice cap and effecting the Albedo,
These following dates: years before present,  correspond approximately to the ash layers found:
3330 years, 3150 years, and 1920-2000 years - BP

These may be translated into the following key periods of high and low, sea levels: according to the curve:-

Estimated ocean level changes in pre-historic and historic times

.

. Fluctuation of Sealevels at all the points designated : =levels [A] - to- [K]

level [A] - 16th century
present day sealevel

level [A] - 15th century AD
general rise in price of salt, causes social political unrest [Kolner] broads, meres, clairs and kogs flooded - peat salt production ceases. Holland weakening sea defences

level [A] - 14th century AD
Rising sealevel - Prussia Livonia salt famine [ Tanner] salt prod. forbidden in Holland [Dendermonde/Debbits] Chersonesus settlements decay [Mongait]

level [B] - 11th century AD
Lower sealevel - Doomesday Book 1200 salinae [Bridury] Walcheren island flourishing [Bronsted]

level [B] - 10th century AD
Haithabu near Schleswig, flourishing [Koster] also Yarmouth [Clark][Ives] Lubec

[B] - 9th century AD
Vikings occupy Noirmoutier, Bourgneuf developed [Agate]

[B] - 8th century AD
Camargue in production. Crimea [Bronsted]- Ravenna, and Aquilea had become landlocked due to receding level but Venice florishing [Pirenne] - Peat areas of Wadden with their tidal flats trading intensively [Pirenne] salterns of Pyrenean coast [Ellis] Pope owned salt pans in Ostia [Fea] previously flooded after Trajan

[C] - 5-7th century AD
Almost no coastal salt production. Only upper peat bogs in Ireland, salty sands in Isle of Man and oil shales [for boiling]in Dorset, Salamis still flooded [Newman] Tyre separated from mainland, [St Jerome] - Maritime Greece population dwindling [Nilsson]

[C] - 2nd centuryAD
inland Norfolk broads still in use [Clarke] Classis near Ravenna harbouring ships up to reign of Gothic kings [Goetz]

[D] - 1st century / 100 AD
Tiber ports progessively built inland, by Claudius and Trajan. The Dead Sea becomes a prime source for salt again. Trajan succeeds in rejuvenating the "Suez canal" built originally by RamsesII [Muir]


70 BC Ash layer


[F] * 700-100 BC
very low sealevel- The catastrophic rise in ocean sealevel between 100 BC to the 2 century AD [-1.5m to +1.8m] (much more pronounced than in the 13th cn) Flooding at the Dead Sea caused a sudden increase of the Dead Sea level of - 72 m (seventy two meters) [Cippora Klein-HUJ] The ocean sea level left Greek, Phoenician, Roman ports inundated. Some of these ports were probably built partially into the sea anyway with no consideration of possible sealevel rise [viz.recent finds at Caesaria]

[G] * 1000 BC
-Judean kings, the sea level was well above today's levels although not well documented, the Dead Sea was again a prime source for salt, because of flooding of the sea shore salt pans


1250 BC Ash layer


[H] * 1700-1250 BC
Maritime Mycenaean civilisation flourishes.and Jericho civilisation declining.[Albright]

[I] * 1700/ BC
Jordan valley civilisation flourishes, [Albright] - Agean Minoan culture at a low. 


2350 BC Ash layer


[K] * 2200 / 1800 BC
Aegean Minoan coastal populations prospered. Desolation in the Jordan valley.



 


Melting and Fusion

Flooding


 

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