An ancient civilisation's vocabulary, and possibly a population's resulting behaviour was  drastically influenced by the references to the precarious supply, trading, consumption, and possession of salt.     Prior to the Industrial Revolution, salt was so important to the development of our civilisations, that any inconsistency of supplies, or control of the sources of salt, could be detrimental to the community independence, expansion and liberty . It was reflected in the language 


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One of the earliest pure substances of commerce was common salt (NaCl, sodium chloride). This was obtained from salt water, either the sea or salt springs, by evaporation. The evaporation could take place in natural rock hollows or in specially built basins, and both were in use well before historical records begin. Salt was of great use in food preservation and is a necessary part of a human diet. Since dry salt is fairly easily transportable, a commerce in it flourished in ancient times. Another chemical, similar to salt but less useful, known to the ancient world was soda or natron (Na2CO3, sodium carbonate) which was obtained from natural deposits such as those of the Wadi Natron in Egypt. It was used for cleansing and medicinal purposes.
Ελληνική (Greek)
n. αλάτι, (χημ.) άλας, (μτφ.) σπιρτάδα πνεύματος, (πληθ.) (χημ.) άλατα, (καθομ.) θαλασσόλυκος v. αλατίζω, παστώνω, (καθομ.) πλαστογραφώ, παραποιώ adj. αλμυρός, (δάκρυα) πικρά, (πνεύμα) κοφτερό abbr. αλατο- δεν παίρνω τοις μετρητοίς


libation \ly-BAY-shun\, noun:
1. The act of pouring a liquid or liquor, usually wine, either on the ground or on a victim in sacrifice, in honor of some deity; also, the wine or liquid thus poured out.
Libation is from Latin libatio, from libare, to take a little from anything, to taste, to pour out as an offering.Middle English libacioun, from Latin lbti, lbtin-, from lbtus, past participle of lbre, to pour out as an offering.][DICTIONARY.COM]


AL QALI :-[arabic] ash
ES SALT :- town opp. Jerusalem capital prior to AMMAN
EPSOM SALTS :- magnesium sulphate
CHLOROS [Greek] yellow/green colour
HALS AMMONIAKOS :-Greek : rock salt
SODA :- sodium carbonate
SAL NATIVUS [L] :- rock  salt
SAL FACTICIUS [l] :- salt evaporated from brine
SAL MIRABILE :- glauber's salt
SAL, SELLE, SALT, SALZ, SALERE :-sodium chloride
SAL AMMMONIAC/ SAL ARMENICUM :-ammonium chloride
SALTPETER [SALPETRE] :- potassium nitrate [salt from PETRA ?/]
EIN BOKEK [UM BARAK ]spark? flash ? saltpeter officina ?
SAL MARITIMUS :-coastal evaporated/precipitated salt
SAL FOSSILIS,:- mined salt
BAIE SALT :-French sea salt





\Cord"wain*er\ (-?r), n. [OE. cordwaner, cordiner, fr. OF. cordoanier, cordouanier, F. cordonnier.] A worker in cordwain, or cordovan leather; a shoemaker. [Archaic.]
Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged
 Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

cur·ri·er   Pronunciation Key  (k?r-r, kr-)
One that prepares tanned hides for use.

[Middle English curreiour, from Old French, from Latin coririus, from corium, leather. See sker-1 in Indo-European Roots.]

251 hals {halce]
a primary word ; n m
AV - salt 1; 1
1) salt
Ελληνική (Greek)
n. αλάτι, (χημ.) άλας, (μτφ.) σπιρτάδα πνεύματος, (πληθ.) (χημ.) άλατα, (καθομ.) θαλασσόλυκος v. αλατίζω, παστώνω, (καθομ.) πλαστογραφώ, παραποιώ adj. αλμυρός, (δάκρυα) πικρά, (πνεύμα) κοφτερό abbr. αλατο- δεν παίρνω τοις μετρητοίς

252 halukos {hal-oo-kos'}
from 251 ; adj
AV - salt 1; 1
1) salt

253 alupoteros {al-oo-pot'-er-os} or alupos {al'-oo-pos}
comparative of a compound of 1 (as a negative particle) and 3077 ; adj
See: TDNT - 4:323,*
AV - less sorrowful 1; 1
1) free from pain or grief

254 halusis {hal'-oo-sis}
of uncertain derivation ; n f
AV - chain 10, bonds 1; 11
1) a chain, bond by which the body or any part of it (hands, feet) is bound

257 halon {hal'-ohn}
probably from the base of 1507 ; n f
AV - floor 2; 2
1) a ground plot or threshing floor, i.e. a place in the field made hard after the harvest by a roller, where grain was threshed out

258 alopex {al-o'-pakes}
of uncertain derivation ; n f
AV - fox 3; 3
1) a fox
2) metaph. a sly or crafty man

259 halosis {hal'-o-sis}
from a collateral form of 138 ; n f
AV - to be taken + 1519 1; 1
1) a catching, capture, to be taken


The Encyclopedia of the Bible (edited originally Marijnen) says about Melech: "`King.' Name of a deity venerated by the Ammonites under the name of Milcom. The Israelites worshipped him under the name of Molech." And under Molech: "A West Semitic (especially Canaanitic and Phoenician) deity." Also, "In the Hebrew O.T. the form is actually Molek. The etymology of the word is uncertain; it means `king' in Hebrew and `prince' or `regent' in Akkadian, where it takes the form Malik or . . . Malkum." The Larousse says the Baal of Tyre was solar and was later also marine. It says his title was "Melkart, `God of the City.'" And it says Philo, in his History of the Uranides," identified Melkart with Heracles (born of Demarus). In exchange of Baal-Moloch and Astarte, as they were called in Tyr and Sidon, they called them Baal-Haman and Tanit. Behind those there were Melkarth, which means `key of the city,' Eshmun, lord of riches and health, and finally, Dido herself, the founder of the city, which had the same place in Carthage than Quirinus in Rome." The many variations on spellings gathered are as follows:
Melech, Molech, Milcom, Melkom, Moloch, Molek, Malec, Malik, Melek, Malkum, Melqart, Melkart, Milk, and Melqarth. In Islamic belief this deity is called Malec or Malik, and considered to be the principle angel in charge in Djahannam, their version of hell (Mercatante). The Jews say Malakh ha-Mavet is the Angel of Death, that "malak" means "angel" or "messenger," and that "melek" means "king" (The New Jewish Encyclopedia). BTW - The Larousse says Eshmun = Adonis. [private communication:GWEN SAYLOR ]

2241 eli {ay-lee'}
of Hebrew origin, 0410 with pronominal suffix ; n pr m
AV - Eli 2; 2
1) Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani. The Hebrew form, as Elio, Elio, etc., is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty second Psalm; they mean "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
2242 Heli {hay-lee'}
of Hebrew origin 05941 ; n pr m
AV - Heli 1; 1
Heli = "ascending"
1) the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary

2246 helios {hay'-lee-os}
from hele (a ray, perhaps akin to the alternate of 138) ; n m
AV - sun 30, east 2; 32
1) the sun
2) the rays of the sun
3) the light of day

ale[adj]=healthy>>halitosis[n]=fetor>>hall,[n]=chamber,>>hallelujah[n]=celebration>> hallmark[n]=label,>>hallow{vb]=sanctify,>>hallowed[adj]=divine>>halo[n]=honours,>> halves[n]=portion,>>salus, salutis (f)= health, safety->>salsus, -a, -um (adj)= salted,salty>>sal, salis (m) =salt, brine>>saltus, saltus, saltatory (m)= a leap, bound>>salutary[adj],salaam,[n]= respects>> salacity,[n]= unchastity,>>salami,[n] meat>>salariat[n]=upperclass, noble [salt of the earth]>>salary,[n]= earnings,payment,receipt>>salestalk,[n]=inducement,>>salient,[n]=region,manifest, battleground,important.>>saline,[adj]=salty>>saliva,[n]=excrement>>sallow[adj],>> salubrious[adj],=colourless,unhealthy>>sally[vb],=attack,witticism>>salt-port[n]=outlet. >>salon[n]=gathering>>saloon[n],=chamber>>saltaway[vb],=store, >>saltpetre[n],=explosive>>salvage[vb],salvation[n]=deliverence,preservation>> salve[n]=balm,unguent>>salvo[n]=bombardment, bang>>

Word History: The al- in alcohol may alert some readers to the fact that this is a word of Arabic descent, as is the case with algebra and alkali, al- being the Arabic definite article corresponding to the in English. The origin of -cohol is less obvious, however. Its Arabic ancestor was kul, a fine powder most often made from antimony and used by women to darken their eyelids; in fact, kul has given us the word kohl for such a preparation. Arabic chemists came to use al-kul to mean “any fine powder produced in a number of ways, including the process of heating a substance to a gaseous state and then recooling it.” The English word alcohol, derived through Medieval Latin from Arabic, is first recorded in 1543 in this sense. Arabic chemists also used al-kul to refer to other substances such as essences that were obtained by distillation, a sense first found for English alcohol in 1672. One of these distilled essences, known as “alcohol of wine,” is the constituent of fermented liquors that causes intoxication. This essence took over the term alcohol for itself, whence it has come to refer to the liquor that contains this essence as well as to a class of chemical compounds such as methanol.

the Old Persian/Old Iranian word for shekel appears in Elamite texts, where it
is mostly spelled pan-su-(uk)-qa.  Some people (among whom W. Hinz, Altiranisches Sprachgut
der Nebenueberlieferungen, 1975, p.178) think the Iranian word behind the
Elamite spellings should be *pancuka-, which means 'five (units)

see the caf' hamsa protosinaitic

 *pathuka-, 'ram'


Camden's Britannia published in 1607 the word "wiccj = salt pittes The salt makers or "wallers" derived from the anglo saxon "waellere" a boiler, [german = wallen -to boil. sal.tern \'so.l-t*rn\ n [OE sealtern, fr. sealt salt + rn house; akin to ON]rann house : a place where salt is made by boiling or evaporation Salt was sold by the Mittae at Droitwich and then later by the bushel which is not recorded in England before 1086. The Mittae at Droitwich was equivalent to four bushels or two hundredweight or a horseload (as recorded by the Rev.Hale), whereas in Cheshire a horse could carry 6 bushels because the weight of each bushel was less than a Droitwich bushel.The wiches...(Droitwich...etc UK etc) were producing salt from the salt springs for the Romans and continued to do so, up to the begining of this century


Source: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition



This word for master derives from the Old English hlįford or literally bread (loaf)-ward. Originally, it is a reference to the head of a household; servants in the house would be entitled to be fed by the master. The general sense of master, as opposed to the specific sense of a provider of bread, is well established by c. 950.



This word for non-Christian or pagan is common in all the Germanic languages. It appears in Old English as hāžen in the year 826. It clearly arose after Christianity, but had to be quite early for it to appear in all the Germanic tongues, sometime in the 4th century or earlier. Most words of this age have unclear etymologies, but this is not the case with heathen.

It is believed to have originated in Gothic and spread to the other Germanic tribes. In the 4th century, Ulfilas, bishop of the Goths, translated the Bible into Gothic. In Mark 7:26, which reads "Now the woman was a Greek , a Syrophoenician by birth...," Ulfilas used the word haižnō in place of Greek, or as it appears in the Vulgate gentilis, or gentile. Haižnō literally means dweller on the heath.


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One needs to check a history of the Vatican States from 1492 on through the early 16th century. Umbria being so close to Rome, that's where the rebellions first occurred, especially in Terni, when the Pope flexed his tax muscle. The unsalted bread refered to (pane sciapo) is also called "pane di Terni" for the same reason. What began as a political and economic protest wound up catching on as a regional taste. I'm not sure who the Pope was at the time of the first rebellion, but it may have been the same Sixtus remembered for the Sistine Chapel. Spanish and Portuguese Indiana University


salt @latin
concha -ae f. [a sea-shell]; hence [a shell-fish , esp. mussel or pearl-oyster or the fish yielding purple dye]; poet., [a pearl or purple dye]. Transf., [a vessel like a shell, e.g. a saltcellar or trumpet].
sal salis m. [salt; brine , sea water]; fig., sing. and pl. [wit].
salarius -a -um [of salt]; n. as subst. [salt money , an allowance, pay]
salillum -i n. [a little saltcellar].
salinae -arum f. pl. [salt-works , brine-pit].
salinum -i n. [a saltcellar].
salio salire salui saltum [to spring , leap, bound]; f. pl. of partic. as subst. salientes -ium, [fountains].
salsamentum -i n. [fish-pickle , brine; salted or pickled fish].
salsura -ae f. [salting , pickling].
salsus -a -um [salted , salty]; hence [sharp, biting, witty]; adv. salse.
sargus -i m. [a salt-water fish , the sargue].
scarus -i m. [a salt-water fish , perhaps parrot-fish].
scorpio -onis and scorpius (-os) -i m. [a scorpion]; milit. [an engine for throwing missiles; a salt-water fish , perhaps the sculpin].
tyrotarichos -i m. [a dish of cheese and salt-fish].


Here is a website with over 800 pages devoted to information about, & images of, the ancient Hebrew LMLK (Lamed-Mem-Lamed-Kaf, commonly pronounced "L'melekh", meaning "belonging to the king" or alternatively if one accepts a possible misaligning of letters hand printed on the ceramic handles,  the word could easily have referred to MELAkH meaning salt NaCl ) seal impressions found in & around Jerusalem on fragmented jar handles possibly used to measure quantities of salt-  interpreted as royal stamps [or "salt stamps"]

** Note the similarity of "kh" letters in their historical development below

A "Royal prerogative" could therefore have developed from a "Salt Monopoly"     ΆΛΑΣ



(Samaria Ostraca)

(Isaiah Scroll)


















1. san.guine \'san-gw*n\ \-gw*n-n*s\ aj [ME sanguin, fr. MF, fr. L sanguineus, fr. sanguin-, sangu]is 1: BLOODRED 2a: consisting of or relating to blood 2b: SANGUINARY of the complexion 2c: RUDDY 3a: having blood as the predominating bodily humor 3b: having the bodily conformation and temperament held characteristic of such predominance and marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness 4: CONFIDENT, OPTIMISTIC - av 2. sanguine n : a moderate to strong red




electrolyte (ĭlĕk'trəlīt') , electrical conductor in which current is carried by ions rather than by free electrons (as in a metal). Electrolytes include water solutions of acids, bases, or salts; certain pure liquids; and molten salts. Gases may act as electrolytes under conditions of high temperature or low pressure. All inorganic acids, bases, and salts are electrolytes. Electrolytic substances are classified as strong or weak according to how readily they dissociate into conducting ions. Potassium chloride and sodium hydroxide are strong electrolytes; they are almost completely dissociated when in solution or fused. Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte. An electrolyte is decomposed when a current passes through it

Many of the words used by the Arabs in describing science have been retained and have entered the English language. The major contributions of the Islamic culture were in three areas of science: chemistry, mathematics, and astronomy. In chemistry, Arabic words include alcohol, alkali (from al-quali, the saltwork ashes), niter (from which word we get nitrate), alkahest (the universal solvent, sought by the alchemists), and alembic (a distilling flask). In mathematics, some of the Arabic terms are algorithm, algebra, and arithmetic.  


Webster Definition for "SALT" Cross references:
1.common salt 1. salt \'\ n [ME, fr. OE sealt; akin to OHG salz salt, L sal, Gk halsX salt, sea 1a: a crystalline compound NaCl that is the chloride of sodium, abundant in nature, and used esp. for seasoning or preserving food or in industry 1b: a substance (as sal soda) resembling common salt in some property pl 1c1: a mineral or saline mixture (as Epsom salts) used as an aperient or cathartic 1c2: SMELLING SALTS 1d: any of numerous compounds formed by replacement of part or all of the acid hydrogen of an acid by a metal or radical acting like a metal 2a: an element that gives savor, piquancy, or zest : FLAVOR 2b: sharpness of wit : PUNGENCY 2c: EARTHINESS 2d: RESERVE, SKEPTICISM - often used in the phrase with a grain of salt 2e: a scattered elite - usu. used in the phrase salt of the earth 3: SAILOR

2. salt vt 1a: to sprinkle, rub, impregnate, or season with salt 1b: to preserve (food) with salt or in brine 2: to give flavor or piquancy to 3: to enrich (as a mine) artificially by secretly placing valuable mineral in some of the working places 4: to supply (as an animal) with salt 5: to sprinkle as if with salt {~ing clouds with silver iodide}

3. salt aj 1a: SALINE, SALTY 1b: being or inducing one of the four basic taste sensations 2: cured or seasoned with salt : SALTED 3: overflowed with salt water 4: SHARP, PUNGENT - salt.ness n

4. salt aj [by shortening & alter. fr. assaut, fr. ME a sawt, fr. MF a saut], lit., on the jump : LUSTFUL, LASCIVIOUS


Quaite, Quate, Quade, McQuade, MacQuaid, McQuoide: Scottish/Irish Patronymic Name...The Gaelic given name Wat (pronounced wait, and the same as Walter). The name Walter was brought by the Normans and derived from Wald , meaning rule, and theri , meaning army. Mac Uaid was the son of Wat (Walter). The Anglicized version took many forms, some of which dropped the Mac, and many of which arranged the vowels in combination.

Sanguino/Sanguinetti Spanish/Italian Nickname...Both Sanguino and Sanguinetti have as their root -- sanguinis -- the Latin word for blood. The word was also appropriated by Medieval English and Medieval French as a root for words with blood as a reference. The Italians often placed diminutive suffixes on names, which would create "little blood" Sanguinetti. Descriptive names are somewhat rare among the Spanish-speaking languages, and those taken from colors are even more rare; Blanco (white), Castano, Moreno (brown), and Pardo (gray) are the only ones among the top one-thousand Latin American names.

Saumweg - general expression for route. [animal transport] meaning "salt way". [ do'saumer' 'Salway', eg 'Solway' , 'Silk' road - KINGS WAY derech hamelech via salaria


Levinstein, Silverstein, Salzman, Levin, Zilberstein, Levana , Salomon, Seligman, Weisman, Halman,

MONEY: Ethiopian money (Abyssian) Amole held in banks as discovered by the Italians when they invaded( c.1935/6?). SALARY


collected comment: But W. Halen is from earlier Brit. *Salos which is cognate with L. sal  "salt", Cornish sal, zal; and OIr. salann. In Welsh, the intial s>h occured in the mid to late sixth century(and something similar happened in Greek in antiquity). Thus, W. Halen is not very far removed from G. salz. I'm unconvinced by the proposed etymology for Hallstatt, which looks like a typical Germanic formation. What are the early forms?The temptation to equate the word "salty" with the words "healthy" and "holy" should be resisted (they have quite different origins).Henry Gough-Cooper.visit the Scottish Place-Name Society website

"There seems to be a link between soldier, soldaat and soldij," - "Could it be that sol- has its origin in Greek?" Close. It was Latin, from solidus, solid. This, it seems, was used by Romans as a shortened form of nummus solidus, or solid coin, which found its way into Old French as soulde, pay, and the coin known as a sou. Since the essence of being a mercenary soldier was that one was paid for one's trouble (as opposed to being conscripted), anyone who thus served was known as a soudier, which begat the modern French soldat and the English soldier. The word solder also comes from solidus: it originally meant to make solid. Works by authors like Jean de Montreuil, Jean Juvenal des Ursins, etc are famous for the transmission adevelopment of the concept of the Salic Law, one of the most misunderstood and enduring of all medieval myths . 

At its height, Harappan civilization stretched from the borderlands of Baluchistan in the west to what is now New Delhi in the east. It was India's first major civilization and the world's third, after Mesopotamia and pharaonic Egypt.Given the distances involved, it is remarkable how closely Dholavira replicates the centralized design of the remote imperial centers, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro TIME


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